Dr. Stanley Pomerantz, M.D.'s Sanborn Viso-Cardiette Model 51

The piece belonged to Dr. Stanley Pomerantz, M.D.  Dr. Pomerantz, who passed away in 2011 at the age of 84 was a graduate of City College of New York, and Downstate Medical Center. He completed his medical residency at Montefiore Hospital, and his fellowship at Kings County Medical Center. Dr. Pomerantz was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and the Alpha Omega Alpha honor societies. He practiced internal medicine and hematology in Union, N.J., and Roselle, N.J.

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Dr. Pomerantz served as director of graduate medical education at Alexian Brothers Hospital, and chief of hematology at Trinitas Hospital. He was an assistant professor of medicine at Seton Hall University School of Graduate Medical Education.

Dr. Pomerantz served in the U.S. Navy during World War II.


The Sanborn Model 51 Direct Writing Viso-Cardiette is essentially a recording vacuum tube voltmeter capable of reproducing for analysis on rectangular coordinates the complex electric configuration of the heart voltages. With auxiliary equipment it can be used to record liquid pressure, electrokymograph tracings, and other associated phenomena.

General Edmund Kirby Smith

May 16, 1824 - March 28, 1893

Born in St. Augustine Florida, Edmund Kirby Smith was educated at the United States Military Academy, where he graduated in 1845.  After graduation, Smith served in the Mexican-American War with distinction, participating in the battles at Cerro Gordo and Contreras.  After the war, he served as a Professor of Mathematics at West Point before being sent west to participate in the Indian Campaigns.  Smith was in Texas with the 2nd Cavalry when war broke out in 1861.  At first Smith refused to surrender to Texas militia, but his loyalties changed once Florida seceded Smith resigned from the United States Army, and entered the Confederate army with the rank of lieutenant colonel.

Edmund Kirby Smith was quickly commissioned as a brigadier general within the Confederate army, and served at the First Battle of Manassas, where he was seriously injured.  After recovering, he was sent west to command the Army of East Tennessee.  Fighting alongside Braxton Briggs in his invasion of Kentucky, Smith led his army to victory at Richmond on August 30, 1862.  ,

In October of 1862, Smith left his camp at Mccouns Ferry in Kentucky to assist in the battle at Perryville.  Smith’s camp was torn down quickly and caused Smith to leave behind several pieces of his personal effects including this chamber pot chair which had doubled as his desk chair.  One battle began another and Smith never returned to retrieve the belongings.

This chair was built for General Smith in 1861 and prevented the General from having to utilize the latrines used by his soldiers.  The leading cause of death amongst Civil War soldiers was not battlefield wounds or botched surgeries; it was diarrhea caused by poor conditions and disease.


This chamber pot chair was cared for throughout the decades by members of the Mccouns Ferry area’s historical society and eventually donated to this museum.  The remainder of General Smith’s effects including his steamer trunk are in the Smithsonian.

General Smith was the last Confederate General in the Confederate Army and refused to surrender after Robert E. Lee’s official surrender to Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865.


This piece was generously donated to the LITA Museum by the S. P. Fay family at Mccouns Ferry, Kentucky


"I am left a commander without an army, a general without troops, You have made your choice. It was unwise and unpatriotic, but it is final. I pray you may not live to regret it. The enemy will now possess your country, and dictate his own laws. You have voluntarily destroyed our organizations, and thrown away all means of resistance."

Professor James Francis "Frank" Pantridge, CBE, MC, OStJ, MD

October 3, 1916 – December 26, 2004

Professor James Francis "Frank" Pantridge, was a physician and cardiologist from Northern Ireland who transformed emergency medicine and paramedic services with the invention of the portable defibrillator.

Frank was born in Hillsborough, County Down, Northern Ireland, in 1916. He was educated at Friends' School Lisburn and Queen's University of Belfast, graduating in medicine in 1939.

During World War II he served in the British Army. He was commissioned into the Royal Army Medical Corps as a lieutenant on April 12, 1940. He was given the service number 128673. He was awarded the Military Cross during the Fall of Singapore, when he became a POW. He served much of his captivity as a slave labourer on the Burma Railway.When he was freed at the war's end, Pantridge was emaciated and had contracted cardiac beriberi; he suffered from ill-health related to the disease for the rest of his life.

He returned to Northern Ireland in 1950, and was appointed as cardiac consultant to the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast and professor at Queen's University, where he remained until his retirement in 1982. There he established a specialist cardiology unit whose work became known around the world.

By 1957 Pantridge and his colleague, Dr John Geddes, had introduced the modern system of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for the early treatment of cardiac arrest. Further study led Frank Pantridge to the realization that many deaths resulted from ventricular fibrillation which needed to be treated before the patient was admitted to hospital. This led to his introduction of the mobile coronary care unit (MCCU), an ambulance with specialist equipment and staff to provide pre-hospital care.

To extend the usefulness of early treatment, Pantridge went on to develop the portable defibrillator, and in 1965 installed his first version in a Belfast ambulance. It weighed 70 kg and operated from car batteries, but by 1968 he had designed an instrument weighing only 3 kg, incorporating a miniature capacitor manufactured for NASA.

Although he was known worldwide as the "Father of Emergency Medicine", Frank Pantridge was less acclaimed in his own country, and was saddened that it took until 1990 for all front-line ambulances in the UK to be fitted with defibrillators.

Pantridge was awarded the Military Cross "in recognition of gallant and distinguished services in Malaya in 1942". The citation read:

"This officer worked unceasingly under the most adverse conditions of continuous bombing and shelling and was an inspiring example to all with whom he came into contact. He was absolutely cool under the heaviest fire."

On display: IPCO/Pantridge Defibrillator Model 280, 1976 (Item Gifted by the Dublin, Texas Ambulance Service, Founded in 1976.)


Cherry Ames Book Series by Helen Wells and Julie Campbell Tatham

Cherry Ames is the central character in a series of 27 mystery novels with hospital settings published by Grosset & Dunlap between 1943 and 1968. Helen Wells (1910-1986) wrote volumes #1-7 and 17-27, and Julie Campbell Tatham (1908-1999), the creator of Trixie Belden, wrote volumes #8-16. Wells also created the Vicki Barr series. During World War II, the series encouraged girls to become nurses as a way to aid the war effort. Cherry Ames original editions are prized by collectors and fans. The series generated a few spin-off items, including a Parker Brothers board game; some titles have been reprinted.
The nursing profession had a powerful marketing and recruiting tool through these books.
Most nursing images in popular media do little to portray the profession in a way that either makes us proud or entices young people. If we are to survive and thrive going forward, our youth still need inspiring stories of excellent nursing role models depicting the breadth of real work that defines our profession as well as the satisfaction it can bring. This is a true call to action! Until then, there's still Cherry Ames...

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